Alt Pirineu (Pallars Sobirà,Catalunya)

The first case study is located in the Pyrenees in the Comarca Pallars Sobirá (Catalunya). The economy and ecology of this high mountain region have been shaped since thousand of year by extensive transhumant pastoral activities and subsistence agriculture, but recently the touristic sector has been increasing. The area is highly exposed to climate change that in concomitance with multiple socio-economic and political changes have driven over time a progressive abandonment of pastoral activities and pastoral lands and increased the re-greening of vast areas of natural pastures at low, middle and high altitude. Such changes have been accompanied by cultural changes directly influencing the local livelihoods, the role of women on the pastoral culture and activities and the intergenerational transmission of traditional ecological knowledge. In the last ten years the “Shepherd school” and several initiatives connected to the incipient touristic attraction, e. g. eco-museums; innovative entrepreneurship of cheese production, have been drawing attention to the natural and cultural heritage of this silvo-pastoral food system, and specifically the role of women and young people in managing novel adaptive responses.

Serranía de Ronda (Málaga, Andalucía)

The second case study is located in the Sierra de Ronda (Province of Malaga, Andalucía). In this mountain area environmental changes, are mainly related to climate change and land use changes driven by abandonment of lands and the shift from a subsistence system to commercial monoculture of oak cork and chestnut. Such changes have been accompanied by socio-economic changes, e.g. outmigration of young people to the coast attracted by temporary jobs, in the sector of infrastructure and tourism, economic crisis. The final effect has been a progressive abandonment of the entire area, the farms, and specifically the agricultural activities and spaces, and a cultural change, e.g. dietary habits and consumption patterns, dependence on subsidies culture. Such changes have progressively changed the role of women and young people in these rural areas. Currently the Asociación Montañas y Desarrollo and the Universidad Campesina Paulo Freire are reshuffling these rural areas, searching for new opportunities of job for women and young people and the revitalization of the local bio-cultural heritage.

Sierra de Cazorla ( Jaén, Andalucía)

The third case study is located in the mountain area of the Natural Park of Cazorla-Segura-Las Villas (Andalucía). The socio-economic system is based on the extensive transhumant pastoral systems of long distance which shapes the local pastures and forest lands. Environmental changes are highly threatening this high mountain area. Additionally socio-economic and political drivers have contributed over time to the progressive loss of the traditional system of livestock management and associated local identity and traditional ecological knowledge. In the region and the sector, a policy planning mainly based in economic subsidies for marginal areas and activities has influenced over time the main cultural changes in the agri-food system. It has strongly impacted on changing the access and roles of women in the pastoral society, resulting in their exclusion on the activities related to the agro-pastoral system. In this case we mainly focus on young people as possible more vulnerable group.